Air pollution could be causing double the number of excess deaths a year in Europe than has been estimated previously, according to a study published March 12, 2019 in the European Heart Journal. It caused an estimated 790,000 extra deaths in the whole of Europe in 2015 and 659,000 deaths in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU-28). Of these deaths, between 40-80% were due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as heart attacks and stroke. Air pollution caused twice as many deaths from CVD as from respiratory diseases. The researchers found that air pollution caused an estimated 8.8 million extra deaths globally rather than the previously estimated 4.5 million.