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Several therapeutic agents have shown promising results for fracture healing, including estrogen hormone, growth factors (bone morphogenetic proteins, BMPs) and osteoporosis drugs (parathyroid hormone, bisphosphates). However, most agents are associated with some limitations.
Researchers are therefore always on the lookout for alternative remedies that are effective as well as economical.
Flavonoids are natural compounds found in fruits, vegetables, tea and traditional herbal medicines. Flavonoids have the potential to reduce bone loss and promote bone formation. Kaempferol is a flavonoid found in several vegetables and fruits. It is found in tea, cabbage, beans, and tomatoes. This flavonoid possesses significant bone healing potential. It has been shown to protect against bone loss and enhance bone strength in in vitro and in vivo models. The flavonoid exerts anti-osteoclastogenic effects in vitro. Kaempferol has also been found to promote osteoblast function, induce bone formation and protect osteoblasts from damage by oxidative stress.
Kaempferol has also been shown to reduce glucocorticoid-induced bone loss and improve bone regeneration at the site of fracture. The flavonoid protects against postmenopausal bone loss, and evidence has shown that kaempferol leads to an increase in the callus size and bone mineral density in comparison with untreated control groups in the bone healing process. Kaempferol enhances fracture healing as it increases callus formation and initiates the process of bone remodeling.
Kaempferol could therefore serve as a potential agent to enhance fracture healing.