Whole grain (WG) intake is known to be associated with reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The goal of a recent study published in the Nutrition Journal was to investigate the effects of short-term intervention with WG rye on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers in middle-aged patients with T2D. In this randomized, controlled, crossover study, rye-based breads were provided to 38 healthy test subjects, 52-70 years of age, during three consecutive days. White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as the reference. The rye-based bread (RB) consisted of a WG rye kernel and flour mixture (in 1:1 ratio) supplemented with resistant starch type-2 (RS2) (RB + RS2). The last bread portion was ingested at 2100 hours, and cognitive function, mood and cardiometabolic risk markers were determined the following morning, 11-14 hours post intake. The results showed that the RB + RS2 product increased ratings of mood parameters compared to WWB. However, no differences were detected in the cognitive tests depending on the intervention. Meanwhile, fasting levels of the cardiometabolic risk marker IL-1β decreased with RB + RS2 intake. On the other hand, insulin sensitivity positively correlated to working memory test performance. This study displayed novel findings regarding effects of WG rye products on mood, and glucose and appetite regulation in middle-aged subjects, indicating its anti-diabetic properties. The beneficial effects were said to be mediated through gut fermentation of dietary fiber in the rye-based bread supplemented with resistant starch type-2.