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A new study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology examined whether Cesarean delivery (CD) increased the risk of wheeze or food allergy in early childhood compared to vaginal delivery and if these associations were mediated by breastfeeding. This study included the Upstate KIDS cohort (2008- 2010) of mothers and infants. Infant’s wheeze and food allergies was recorded by questionnaire every 4- 6 months until 3 years, beginning at 8 months of age. Modified Poisson regression was used to compare risks of outcomes by mode of delivery (MOD). The results disclosed that emergency CD, in 1,356 cases, was associated with an elevated risk of wheeze in the offspring and an increased risk of food allergy. On the contrary, neither outcome was significantly associated with planned CD, in 1,565 cases. Meanwhile, breastfeeding mediated the association between MOD and wheeze but not food allergy. Hence, it was concluded that other factors which are not associated with early-life microbial transfer, but to the development of outcomes, may contribute to the association between MOD and wheezing or food allergy.