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World COVID Meter 21st May: Living with COVID 1.0: End Fear Pandemic |
Editorial
eMediNexus Coverage from: 
World COVID Meter 21st May: Living with COVID 1.0: End Fear Pandemic

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212 Countries affected, Nearly 99 K cases and 4.5 K deaths per day

Minimum Likely Deaths 336591   

Total cases 5 M  

President Trump on hydroxychloroquine; Moderna vaccine tested in people appeared to be safe and able to stimulate an immune response against the virus. WHO agreed to begin an inquiry into the global response to the pandemic, at the end of a rough annual meeting that saw the U.S. and China taking hits at each other.

World Cases: 1M: April 2, 2 M: April 15, 3 M: April 27, 4 M: May 8; 5 Million 20 May

Ground Zero Wuhan – 1st case in live animal market or cafeteria for animal pathogens: 10th January. 

Total cases are based on RT PCR which has only 67% sensitivity. Does not include clinical cases.

Doubling time India 14 days, USA 27 days, UK 27 days, Spain 40 days, Russia 13 days, Italy 46 days, Brazil 11 days, France 41 days, Germany 44 days, Turkey 30 days, Malaysia 42 days, Singapore 20 days, China 67 days, Hong Kong 50 days

Situation Around the Globe: Likely minimum deaths (329721 + 45802 x 15 = 6870) = 336591  

Coronavirus Cases: 5,085,066

Deaths: 329,721

Recovered: 2,021,843

ACTIVE CASES: 2,733,502

Currently Infected Patients 2,687,700 (98%) in Mild Condition

45,802 (2%) Serious or Critical

CLOSED CASES: 2,351,564

Cases which had an outcome: 2,021,843 (86%) Recovered/Discharged

329,721 (14%) Deaths

652.1 cases per million population (India 81) 

42.2 deaths per million population (India 2)

India Doubling time: 14 days; Will be in top ten in three days

#

Country,Other

TotalCases

NewCases

TotalDeaths

NewDeaths

TotalRecovered

ActiveCases

Serious,Critical

Tot Cases/1M pop

Deaths/1M pop

TotalTests

Tests/1M pop

Population

1

India

112,028

+5,553

3,434

+132

45,422

63,172

 

81

2

2,512,388

1,823

1,378,455,853

 

Total:

5,082,661

+99,724

329,294

+4,740

2,020,157

2,733,210

45,803

652.1

42.2

   

28 Days

Date

Daily new cases

New Deaths

Total cases

Total Deaths

20 May

5553

132

112028

3434

19 May

6147

146

106475

3302

18 May

4630

131

100328

3156

17 May

5050

154

95698

3025

16 May

4864

118

90648

2781

15 May

3787

104

85784

2753

14 may

3942

98

81997

2649

13May

3763

136

78055

2551

12 May

3524

121

74292

2415

11 May

3607

82

70,768

2294

10 May

4353

111

67161

2212

9 May

3113

116

62808

2101

8 May

3344

96

59695

1985

7 May

3364

104

56351

1889

6 May

3587

92

52987

1785

5 May

2963

127

49400

1693

4 May

3932

175

46437

1566

3 May

3062

68

42505

1391

2 May

2547

79

39699

1323

1 May

2212

81

37257

1223

30 April

1978

75

34863

1154

29 April

1804

71

33062

1079

28 April

1724

66

31324

1008

27 April

1680

61

29451

939

26 April

1668

53

27890

881

25 April

1617

54

26283

825

24 April

1638

48

24447

780

23 April

1456

45

23039

721

 

#

Country,Other

TotalCases

NewCases

TotalDeaths

NewDeaths

TotalRecovered

ActiveCases

Serious,Critical

Tot Cases/1M pop

Deaths/1M pop

TotalTests

Tests/1M pop

Population

 

World

5,082,661

+99,724

329,294

+4,740

2,020,157

2,733,210

45,803

652

42.2

   

1

USA

1,591,991

+21,408

94,994

+1,461

370,076

1,126,921

17,815

4,813

287

14,117,870

42,680

330,785,250

2

Russia

308,705

+8,764

2,972

+135

85,392

220,341

2,300

2,115

20

7,578,029

51,930

145,927,633

3

Brazil

293,357

+21,472

18,894

+911

116,683

157,780

8,318

1,381

89

735,224

3,462

212,389,176

4

Spain

279,524

+721

27,888

+110

196,958

54,678

1,152

5,979

596

3,037,840

64,977

46,752,802

5

UK

248,293

 

35,704

+363

N/A

N/A

1,559

3,660

526

2,962,227

43,661

67,846,185

6

Italy

227,364

+665

32,330

+161

132,282

62,752

676

3,760

535

3,171,719

52,450

60,471,440

7

France

181,575

+766

28,132

+110

63,354

90,089

1,794

2,782

431

1,384,633

21,218

65,257,613

8

Germany

178,531

+704

8,270

+77

156,900

13,361

1,045

2,132

99

3,595,059

42,924

83,754,315

9

Turkey

152,587

+972

4,222

+23

113,987

34,378

877

1,811

50

1,696,355

20,138

84,235,031

10

Iran

126,949

+2,346

7,183

+64

98,808

20,958

2,735

1,514

86

731,213

8,719

83,868,516

11

India

112,028

+5,553

3,434

+132

45,422

63,172

 

81

2

2,512,388

1,823

1,378,455,853

 

Latest News:

  • WHO allows well-designed human challenge studiesin young healthy adults [18-30 years, hospitalization rate 1%, fatal infection rates 0.03%.]  March 27 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: 20.8% of patients aged 20-44 had severe disease and 4.2% of patients developed critical disease.

 

  • Males: Prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy less infected [May 7 Annals of Oncology].

 

  • For test to work in a disease that affects 2%-3% of the population, an antibody test with at least 99.7% specificity is needed.

 

  • ICN: Over 90,000 healthcare workers worldwide are infected with COVID-19. Over 260 have died.

 

  • Over 50% cases still active. Among the top 15 most affected countries, the UK has the highest proportion of active cases at 85%. The UK is followed by Russia at 80%. The next is the US at 72%. In Germany, only 10% are currently active. By comparison, 63% in India are yet to see an outcome.

 

  • About 20% of patients are often responsible for 80% of cases. An Israeli coronavirus data showed that just 5% of patients were responsible for spreading the disease to 80% of those infected.

 

  • Qatar Airways crew will don full protective suits over their uniforms to reassure nervous passengers.

 

  • Patients with opacities in at least two lung zones have increased odds of requiring hospitalization and those with opacities in at least three lung zones are more susceptible to require intubation. 

 

 

India predictions

 

  1. Delhi cases 0.04%, Maharashtra 0.02% and Gujarat 0.01% of the population.
  2. >90% of people are symptomatic within 2 weeks of infection.
  3. Death Rates 3.20%; Corrected Death Rate 7.3% [China 5.58%].
  4. Doubling time India 14 days, USA 27 days, UK 27 days, Spain 40 days, Russia 13 days, Italy 46 days, Brazil 11 days, France 41 days, Germany 44 days, Turkey 30 days.
  5. Estimated cases in India: Number of deaths x 85 (number of serious patients 14 days before): On May 4, with 175 new deaths, on 20thApril expected serious cases would have been 666; expected cases 4440 as against 1239 reported (Undiagnosed cases >75%).
  6. Undocumented cases for each documented case - Iceland: 1: 2; Germany: 1: 5; New York City grocery store shoppers: 1: 10;California 1.5%.
  7. If we take New York as bench-mark, minimum mortality 0.75% (Number of cases on 20th278900).
  8. Death rates on 8thMay: World: 6.9%; Europe: 9.6%; North America: 6 %; Asia: 3.4%; South America: 5.1%; Africa: 3.8%; Oceania: 1.4%.
  9. Deaths per Million Population: USA: 232; Spain: 558; World: 34; India: 2.
  10. 10thMay: % of tests positive - USA 15%, Italy 8.7%, UK 12.4%, Spain 10.4%, India 3.9%.
  11. Mortality on 11thMay: Delhi 1%; Maharashtra 3.7%; Gujarat 6%; MP 5.9%; Kerala 0.78%; Rajasthan 2.8%; Andhra Pradesh 2.3%; Bihar 0.9%; West Bengal 9.5%; UP 2.3%.
  12. Test Positive - West Bengal 4.4%; Gujarat 7.2%; MP 5%, Delhi 7.3%; Kerala 1.3%; Maharashtra 9.8%; Rajasthan 2.3%; UP 2.7%.
  13. 3rdLock down effect: May 3 Number of cases 3062; till 9th May all cases are prior to lock down 3.0 effect; 10th May onwards extra cases post lock down 3.0 effect.
  14. Amongst active 2.37% are serious, 1.82% need oxygen, and 0.41% need ventilator support.
  15. As on date, India has conducted over 2.27 M tests, out of which 4.29% of the samples have tested positive.
  16. Among 10 most affected Indian states, Rajasthan has the highest percentage of recoveries at 57%, while Maharashtra stands at 29% and Punjab at 9%.

 

Extra Reading Background Material

  1. China: Captured tiny droplets of viral genetic markers in 2 hospitals in Wuhan floating for >2 hours. Infectivity? [Journal Nature]
  2. India: In states with average population density of 1185/sq km, the average number of cases were 2048. On the contrary, in states with population density of 909/sq km, the number of cases were 56. When Chandigarh and Pondicherry were taken out from this group, the Average Density of other states were 217 and the average number of cases were 35. [HCFI]
  3. Revised COVID Sutras: It’s a COVID-19 pandemic due to SARS 2 Beta-coronaviruses (different from SARS 1 where spread was only in serious cases); with three virus sequences floating (one similar to Wuhan, second similar to Iran and the third strain similar to USA – UK); has affected up to 10%  (5.7%  South Korea) of the population; Causes Mild or Asymptomatic Illness in 82%, Moderate to Severe Illness in 15%, Critical Illness in 3% and Death in 2.3% cases (15% of admitted serious cases, 71% with comorbidity< Male > Females); affects all ages but Predominantly Males (56%, 87% aged 30-79, 10% Aged < 20, 3% aged > 80); with Variable Incubation Period days (2-14; mean 5.2 days);  Mean Time to Symptoms 5 days;  Mean Time to Pneumonia 9 days; Mean Time to Death 14 days;  Mean Time to CT changes 4 Days; Reproductive Number R0 1.5 to 3  (Flu 1.2 and SARS 2); Epidemic Doubling Time 7.5 days; Origin Possibly from Bats (Mammal); Spreads via Human to Human Transmission via Large and Small Droplets and Surface to Human Transmission via Viruses on Surfaces for up to three days. Enters through MM of eyes, nose or mouth and the spike protein gets attached to the ACE2 receptors. ACE2 receptors make a great target because they are found in organs throughout our bodies (heart muscle, CNS, kidneys, blood vessels, liver). Once the virus enters, it turns the cell into a factory, making millions of copies of itself, which are then breathed or coughed out and infect others.
  4. Prevalence:New York: 13.9%; New York City at 21.2%; South Korea: 5.7%; World: 5%; Ohio prison: 73% of inmates; New York: 21% mortality [April 22 in JAMA].
  5. Viral particles seen in tears, stool, kidneys, liver, pancreas, heart, semen, peritoneal fluid, CSF.
  6. Thrombosis: University of Pennsylvania reports that clots are seen in patients even on blood thinners.
  7. Other human beta-coronaviruses have immunity lasting only for one year with no IMMUNITY PASSPORT.
  8. In the absence of interventions, prolonged or intermittent social distancing (till 2022-24) is needed.
  9. Low levels of cross immunity from the other beta-coronaviruses against SARS-CoV-2 could make SARS-CoV-2 appear to fade away, only to return after a few years. Surveillance is needed till 2024.
  10. During peak - trace and treat - and after the peak - trace and treat the close contacts.
  11. Increased spread: close environment, crowded place with close physical contacts with no ventilation.
  12. Strategies: From community mitigation to individual containment; broader good over individual autonomy; perfect cannot be the enemy of the good; pandemics are fought on the grounds and not the hospitals. Treat the patient and not the test report; Consider every surface and every asymptomatic person as virus carrier
  13. HCW: Direct patient exposure time < 30 minutes; 7 days work and 7 days holidays.
  14. Italy: mortality reduced when they were short of ventilators.
  15. Hospital at HOME: CHF, mild pneumonia, exacerbations of asthma and COPD, cellulitis, and urinary tract infections.
  16. Great Imitator (protean manifestation)
  17. IgM can be false positive in pregnancy, immunological diseases; Pooled tests (< 5) when seroprevalence is < 2%
  18. Early treatment is needed to reduce the viral load and prevent cytokine storm using off label use of drugs like hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin; ivermectin, remdesivir; Tocilizumab interleukin (IL)-6 receptor inhibitor; convalescent plasma therapy (given early; bridge compassionate therapy, donor 14 days symptoms free, single donation can help 4 patients), Lopinavir-ritonavir and Favipiravir.
  19. Hypoxia: Low flow oxygen < 6l/mt, titrated to high flow oxygen using non rebreathing mask, Venti mask, HFNC and helmet CPAP, NAV in supine or prone position.
  20. Early intubation with prone ventilation only if progressive. Hypoxia patients (walking dead) have capillary problem and not alveoli.
  21. Formulas: Deaths in symptomatic cases 1; Deaths X 100= expected number of symptomatic cases; Cases after seven days: Cases today x 2 (doubling time 7 days); Cases expected in the community: Number of deaths occurring in a five-day period and estimate the number of infections required to generate these deaths based on a 6.91% case fatality rate; Compare that to the number of new cases actually detected in the five-day period. This can then give us an estimate of the total number of cases, confirmed and unconfirmed; Lock down effect = Reduction in cases after average incubation period (5 days); Lock down effect in reduction in deaths: On day 14 (time to death); Requirements of ventilators on day 9: 3% of number of new cases detected;  Requirement of future oxygen on day seven: 15% of total cases detected today;  Number of people which can be managed at home care: 80% of number of cases today;  Requirements of ventilators: 3% of Number of cases today;  Requirement of oxygen beds today: 15% of total cases today.
  22. 225 cremations performed as per COVID protocol at Nigambodh Ghat and Punjabi Bagh crematoriums and 89 burials at the ITO graveyard for Muslims. (10thMay)

 

Dr KK Aggarwal

President CMAAO, HCFI and Past National President IMA

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