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eSpiritual: Music therapy

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Music therapy can ameliorate physical and emotional distress. It can improve distress caused by pain, decrease muscle tension and promote relaxation, decrease anxiety, improve chemotherapy-related nausea and emesis, and improve overall mood [1,2], help manage postoperative nausea and vomiting [3] and reduce pain intensity levels and opioid requirements [4,5].

Music has a significant effect on anxiety, perception of hospitalization or procedure, relaxation and stress levels in brain tumor patients undergoing surgery [6,7].

Music therapy in treatment areas and hospital rooms may help to improve mood and decrease anxiety in cancer patients.


  1. J Adv Nurs. 2006;54:553.
  2. Music Ther Perspect. 1992;9:91.
  3. West J Nurs Res. 1989;11:298.
  4. J Adv Nurs. 1999;29:1130.
  5. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; :CD004843.
  6. Hawaii Med J. 2007; 66:292.
  7. J Music Ther. 2008; 45:349.
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