19th & 26th Dec., 2021, Sunday12noon - 1pmPeople are now opting for electric vehicles. The running costs of electric cars is less than petrol cars. Depending on state policies, buyers can get subsidies and tax benefits.The auto industry is coming up with new models of electric vehicles. They can run more than 400 km in one charge.However, many questions are associated with electric vehicles such as where to charge them? How to get these vehicles serviced? There is also a need for charging in...
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Electric Vehicle (EV) Policies - Implementation and Environmental Challenges
Dr Veena Aggarwal, Consultant Womens’ Health, CMD and Editor-in-Chief, IJCP Group & Medtalks Trustee, Dr KK’s Heart Care Foundation of India, 12 January 2022 #Multispeciality
19th & 26th Dec., 2021, Sunday
12noon - 1pm
People are now opting for electric vehicles. The running costs of electric cars is less than petrol cars. Depending on state policies, buyers can get subsidies and tax benefits.
The auto industry is coming up with new models of electric vehicles. They can run more than 400 km in one charge.
However, many questions are associated with electric vehicles such as where to charge them? How to get these vehicles serviced? There is also a need for charging infrastructure especially on highways. Costs of replacing the batteries as well as disposal/recycling of batteries, affordability, impact of EVs on employment, how the EVs are being included in the comprehensive traffic movement plans of the cities, environmental challenges, end of life management is important. Problems of disposal of car bodies/batteries.
By 2030, the target is to achieve around 30% EV penetration.
About 50-60% of traffic composition is contributed to by two-wheelers. The three-wheeler market also needs to be considered. Everyday 5000 metric tonnes of CO2 is being emitted by auto rickshaws along with 220 metric tonnes of nitrous oxide and also some particulate matter.
The challenges faced by the consumers as well as the manufacturers need to be considered.
Charging of EVs should focus on renewable energy.
A solar panel could be fitted on the roof of automobiles. This can help to keep the batteries of EV charged. Alternatively, parking areas could be covered with solar panels. This will reduce the electrical load to be generated for charging these vehicles.
Although these vehicles do not pollute, but pollution does occur at the place where the power is generated. So, they are not totally free of pollution.
There is a need for a good policy for the use of materials that can be used. Researchers and scientists should deliberate on how the materials in the discarded car can be best utilised.
Hydrogen as fuel is coming up faster than expected as an alternate source of energy. Lot of it would be required in refineries and large industries, but once the cost comes down, then even cars can run on hydrogen rather than EVs.
The solution is local and not global. What is indigenously available is important. If we are to achieve the sustainability goal, we have to have our own traditional practices and solutions. This is a challenge.
Cobalt lithium is mined in countries like Argentina, Chile, China. Besides mining, there is smelting also, which produces SO2. There are local leachate problems.
With EV, there has to be country benefit and not customerism.
The life span of EV is 5-6 years maximum. It will not succeed unless there is a sound recycling policy.
Lithium-ion batteries are more water intensive – more than 50% than the conventional engine system.
EV is an evolving technology. We have to give it time to evolve and mature.
Autorickshaws contribute 15-20% of existing pollution. They have been retrofitted. Other four-wheelers can also be converted into electric vehicles. If all vehicles could be converted to EV, then the target of “net zero” carbon emissions can be achieved much earlier.
The government has approved retro fitment.
The vehicles need not be scrapped. A growing economy like India should not waste so much of steel. The engine can be removed and fitted with electric motor.
Retrofitment has to be encouraged so that the existing pollution can be brought down.
Replacement of the engine battery and gear box of the petrol/diesel vehicles with the motor and battery of the electric vehicle “retrofitment” may make the idea of scrappage redundant. The vehicle scrappage policy is not applicable to electric vehicles as there is no pollution.
Even CNG and LPG vehicles can be retrofitted.
The government is in the process of finalizing a policy for EV and lithium battery recycling keeping in view the new battery rules.
The cost of retrofitment should be kept to minimum so that people can get their vehicles retrofitted.
Looking at the cost of petrol and diesel, people should be encouraged to get their vehicles retrofitted to convert them to electric vehicles.
Government should give incentives to industries to set up facilities for retrofitting of the conventional vehicles.
A shift to electric vehicles by 2030 will save the costs of crude oil import, which is estimated to be more than one lakh crores.
A balance has to be sought between electric vehicle promotion and how they can discourage internal combustion engines.
In some countries, internal combustion engine vehicles are not allowed during peak traffic hours.
End of life management of lithium-ion batteries is very important. Recycling, metal extraction from spent lithium-ion batteries
CNG reduces only black carbon and SO2 components, but it emits nanoparticles and NOX in large amounts because of high temperature combustion of CNG. These nanoparticles are more harmful and carcinogenic.
The GOI should bring very stringent specifications and laws and regulations for battery manufacture, battery charging and chargers. First EV-related death due to explosion of lithium battery has been recently reported in India.
There should also be some Indian standards for batteries and chargers e.g., BSI standards.
The lithium-ion batteries must be tested in the Indian circumstances where the ambient temperatures increase to 40+. Lithium is temperature sensitive.
Studies have shown that lithium ferro phosphate batteries are safe at higher temperatures. Using a different charger may not be safe. Charges are the major cause of associated fire hazards.
The other type of lithium batteries are NMC batteries (lithium, nickel, manganese, cobalt). These can be flammable.
Lead acid batteries cannot raise up to the acceleration speed; they are bulky and highly inefficient and their cost may not be viable.
Any commercial vehicle can be retrofitted, but not personal vehicle as it is not economically viable. There has to be government involvement. If this is achieved, then we can achieve net zero carbon much earlier.
Solar panels can be fitted on the roofs of autorickshaws to increase the mileage and to reduce the overall pollution from the thermal plant.
About 50% salvaging is possible for reuse. Lithium, cobalt from the batteries can be recycled, though not fully. Electrolyte will be wasted; metals will not be wasted.
America and European countries have large number of charging stations. Incentives for buying EV should be standing incentives for anybody who opts for EV.
There can be three options for charging batteries. One, the battery can be charged at home; second, they can be charged at charging points fitted in small shops, chemist shops etc. and the third option is swapping stations, where the driver can swap their battery and take a new one.
EVs will be very silent, which can be quite dangerous to the traffic. A sound might be added to make the approaching vehicle perceptible.
When we retrofit, the old engine, which is removed, has to be used in the best way possible.
Topic:Manatec E Drive Eco Star – Next Gen EV Conversions
Speaker: Mr Mathi Ezil Arasu, Manatec E Drive
Eco Star is a model, manufactured by Manatec E Drive, which converts existing autorickshaws (petrol/diesel/CNG) into electric vehicles.
The company is manufacturing EV Retrofit kits for Autorickshaws, which is ARAI and State TC approved. Retrofit kits come with 3-year warranty and will help to reduce air and noise pollution.
Auto drivers are exposed to particulate matter to a greater extent compared to cab drivers because their vehicles are open.
Every autorickshaw per km emits 98 g of CO2, 0.44g of NOX and 0.14 g of PM. If the auto drives 100 km average in a day, each auto will emit 9800g of CO2, 44 g of NOX and 14 g of PM.
There are around 50 lakh autorickshaws on the roads in India.
The Eco Star kit can provide 100 kms range in one full charge. The battery is 144 AH LFP Battery powered by a 5 kw PMSM Power Drive. There is a 3-year warranty on all parts used in conversion. The battery can be charged in just 4 hours at home or charging stations.
The conversion kit includes PMSM motor, home charger, battery, motor controller, digital cluster, electric throttle, gear box, N/D/R switch and 15 A wall socket. The shelf life of the batter is around 4-5 years, if the vehicle is driven 100 km in a day average.
There is no regenerative braking in the auto rickshaws, only mechanical braking in the vehicle.
The USP for the kit other than no pollution is savings for the driver. The current running cost of Petrol or Diesel autos is Rs.4.60 / km. When this vehicle is converted to EV, the running cost will be Rs.0.50 / km. The Auto driver saves Rs.4 / km or 90% savings on his running cost. Most auto drivers will save Rs.400 / day or Rs.12,000 per month.
The cost of the EV conversion is about Rs.1.90 lakhs. The auto drivers can be offered a loan with an Easy Daily Instalment (EDI). The driver will pay the EDI of Rs. 250 from his daily savings of Rs.400 and not paid from earnings. The loan can be for 3 years with the EDI. Payment from savings reduces the repayment risk.
Easy loans for the autodrivers, good subsidies will encourage vehicle conversions.
There is a battery management system built in every battery, which stops charging when the battery is fully charged. If overcharged, it can cause bulging and electrolyte leakage.
(Excerpts from presentation by Mr Mathi Ezhil Arasu)
Dr Anil Kumar
Mr Vivek Kumar
Mr Paritosh Tyagi
Mr Neeraj Tyagi
Dr Ravindra Kumar
Dr SK Tyagi
Dr Dipankar Saha
Dr BMS Reddy
Mr Pradeep Khandelwal
Mr RS Tyagi
Mr Ankit Sethi
Mr AK Tripathi
Dr M Dwarakanath
Mr Mathi Ezhil Arasu, Manatec E Drive
Mr R Mananathan, Manatec E Drive
Ms Ira Gupta
Dr S Sharma
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