Currently, no specific treatment is available for patients with COVID-19 infection. Past management strategies for respiratory viral infections have helped treat COVID-19 in many cases. Numerous potential therapies like supportive intervention, immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and convalescent plasma transfusion are frequently being tried in clinical settings which have rendered some degree of curative benefits in treating patients with COVID-19 infection. Several ongoing intensi...
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Currently, no specific treatment is available for patients with COVID-19 infection. Past management strategies for respiratory viral infections have helped treat COVID-19 in many cases. Numerous potential therapies like supportive intervention, immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and convalescent plasma transfusion are frequently being tried in clinical settings which have rendered some degree of curative benefits in treating patients with COVID-19 infection.
Several ongoing intensive research and clinical trials are assessing the efficacy of available drugs and exploring potential therapeutic targets to develop new drugs for treating COVID-19. A study summarized the current potential therapeutic approaches for diseases related to COVID-19 infection along with their mechanisms of action, safety, and effectiveness. Listed are the important ones-
Remdesivir is an Antiviral that interferes with virus RNA polymerases to inhibit virus replication and was used for an Ebola virus outbreak.
Lopinavir/Ritonavir is also an Antiviral which is an approved protease inhibitor for HIV.
Favipiravir is an Antiviral that inhibits viral RNA polymerase, thus interfering with viral replication. It has proven its efficacy in completed clinical trials.
EIDD-2801 is an Antiviral that is incorporated during RNA synthesis and then drives mutagenesis, thus inhibiting viral replication.
Convalescent plasma acts as an Antiviral when derived from cured patients. It provides a protective antibody against SARS-CoV-2 and has proven efficacy
rhACE2 is an ACE2 blocker that completely binds to virus S-protein, protecting host lungs from virus attack.
Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug that possesses endosomal acidification fusion inhibitor anti-inflammatory activity.
Tocilizumab and Sarilumab are mAb where Humanized mAb targets IL-6
Bevacizumab is mAb where Humanized mAb targets VEGF
Baricitinib is a JAK inhibitor that attenuates pro-inflammatory response by inhibiting JAK and blocks virus entering into host cells through inhibiting AAK1
MSCs are Cell therapy having regenerative and immunomodulatory properties and protect the lungs against ARDS. they have proven their efficacy in completed clinical trials
iNO is a Vasodilator that possesses the capability of potent and selective pulmonary vasodilation and antimicrobial activity
LHQW is a TCM that is used for prevention and treatment for influenza and has previously been used for SARS outbreak
Xuebijing injection is a TCM which is serving as an endotoxin antagonist, anti-inflammatory agent and anti-coagulant is used for sepsis
IFNs are Immunoenhancer that inhibit viral RNA transcription, protein translation and post-translational modification, thus suppressing virus replication
IVIG is an Immunoenhancer that provides passive immunity and anti-inflammatory effects
NK cell therapy is also an Immunoenhancer that can elicit rapid and robust protective effects in defence against viral infections through direct cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory capability
Corticosteroids are used to dampen proinflammatory cytokines and possess antifibrotic properties; however, their use is controversial.
Heparin is an anticoagulant that can reverse the hypercoagulability in severe cases of COVID-19 and have proven their efficacy in severe types of COVID-19
Vitamin C is used as Nutritional supportive care to boost immunity by stimulating IFN production, supplying lymphocyte proliferation and enhancing neutrophil phagocytic capability
Vitamin D is also utilized as Nutritional supportive care that induces secretion of antimicrobial peptides and has immunomodulatory property
Zinc is the nutritional supportive care that is necessary for the immune system and has anti-viral activities
Ibuprofen is an NSAID that has been widely used to treat fever or pain but its use is in controversy
The mRNA-1273 vaccine contains mRNA that can encode S protein of SARS-CoV-2
The ad5-nCoV vaccine uses replication-defective adenovirus type 5 as a vector to load some gene fragments of SARS-CoV-2 on it to express SARS-CoV-2 S protein
PittCoVacc vaccine utilizes microneedle array to deliver pieces of S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 into the body
The NVX-CoV2373 vaccine is a stable, prefusion protein developed through advanced nanoparticle technology.
Source- Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2020;87:59-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.046.
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