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There remain controversies regarding the pathological mechanism for scar formation. Fatty acids (FAs) are often studied for their role in the formation of pathological scars as they are important for inflammation and mechanotransduction, which is closely related to scar formation.
A study, thus investigated the crucial roles of FA in scar formation.
Hypertrophic scar and keloid of more than 1-year duration and without other treatment, and the normal skin samples were obtained from patients undergoing plastic surgery. Primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured and looked for the amount and variety of FAs by lipid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
The expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were checked by employing immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.
The results after the statistical analysis were as follows:
- Keloids demonstrated 27 differential FAs and hypertrophic scars demonstrated 15 differential FAs compared with full-thickness normal skin.
- Pathological scars showed lower expression of SREBP1 and FASN both at mRNA and protein levels.
- Keloid-derived fibroblasts (KFBs) demonstrated a higher mRNA level of SREBP1 and FASN than the normal skin fibroblasts (NFBs).
- Hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts demonstrated a lower mRNA level of SREBP1 and FASN than the NFBs.
- KFBs and NFBs demonstrated similar FASN protein expression.
Thus, the involvement of FAs in pathological scars was found to be abnormally changed. Hence, fatty acid-derived inflammation and de novo synthesis pathway of FA may have a crucial role in the formation of pathological scars.
Source: Yang JX, Li SY, Chen ML, et al. The role of altered fatty acid in pathological scars and their dermal fibroblasts. Chinese J Traumatol. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjtee.2022.03.006.