Rural-urban diversities in menopausal symptoms


Dr Veena Aggarwal, Consultant Womens’ Health, CMD and Editor-in-Chief, IJCP Group & Medtalks Trustee, Dr KK’s Heart Care Foundation of India    20 January 2023

The frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms was greater among rural middle-aged women compared to women residing in urban areas, according to a study of Chinese women reported in the journal Menopause.1 Rural women also attained menopausal age earlier than the urban women.


This cross-sectional study from China attempted to examine the differences in the prevalence and risk factors among 2729 rural and 4580 urban women aged 40-55 years. Menstrual and reproductive history including demographic information was obtained via questionnaires. The menopausal symptoms were assessed with the modified Kupperman scale.


Analysis revealed that the natural menopausal age was 47.22 years among rural women compared to 47.98 years among urban women. The prevalence of menopausal symptoms was also higher among the rural women (56.35% vs 43.47%, respectively); the severity of symptoms was also greater in rural women (11.40% vs 6.61%, respectively).


The most common symptoms reported were fatigue, myalgia or arthralgia and vertigo. Seventy percent of rural women experienced fatigue vs 68% of urban women. Similarly, the prevalence of other symptoms such as myalgia or arthralgia and vertigo was higher among rural women compared to urban women; 62.84% vs 59.32%, respectively and 57.42% vs 47.44%, respectively. “Positive associations between menopausal symptoms and age, residence, body mass index, level of education, time of pregnancy, menstrual cycle, and presence of chronic diseases were observed”.




  1. An J, et al. Urban-rural differences in epidemiology and risk factors of menopause syndrome in middle-aged Chinese women. Menopause ():10.1097/GME.0000000000002135, January 4, 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000002135

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